Seerat Tayyaba Umm al-Momineen Sayyedah Jaweria bint Harith by Dr. Tahir Siddique

Marriage with Umm al-Mu'minin, Sayyida Jawariyyah bint Harith

 After the battle with Bani Mustaliq in Murisi, many important events took place, among them the incident of Afiq, the conflict between the Ansar and the Muhajireen, was a clear manifestation of Abdullah bin Abi's hostility to Islam. Among the people who were taken prisoner after this battle was the daughter of Haris bin Abi Zarrar bin Khabib, the chief of Bani Mustalq tribe, whose husband Musafa bin Safwan had been killed at the place of Marisiyyah.

This is the incident of 6 Hijri, when Jawariyyah was brought as a prisoner, he was about twenty years old. In the distribution of booty and captives, the millet fell to Hazrat Thabit bin Qais bin Shamas, so he said to Thabit: I do not want to be a slave or a slave. I am the daughter of the chief of my tribe, you are mine. Take the price and set me free. But they had no money. The Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) paid their price and took them in marriage after they accepted Islam ([1]).

A revolutionary change took place in the life of Sayyida Juwayriyyah (RA). You used to fast all day long, read Nawafil a lot, and were busy in dhikr and azkar till late after Fajr prayer.

Hazrat Aisha (may Allah be pleased with her) says that no woman has been such a great mercy to her people than Jo Yariya. When he (PBUH) married Umm al-Mu'minin Juwayriyyah, the Muslims released the prisoners of Bani Mustaliq saying that they were the in-laws of the Messenger of Allah (PBUH). In this way almost all Sugharans were freed from slavery. Not only this, Bani Mustalaq had become a great disaster and bane for the Muslims in Madinah, they had deep connections with Abu Sufyan, they had become more of a threat to the Muslims than the Quraish in Makkah. Umm al-Mu'minin became full-fledged Muslims through the acceptance of Islam and Nikah Nabavi by Sayyida Juwayriyyah, and a dangerous border of Madinah was secured.

Once Umm al-Mu'minin was engaged in dhikr after the Fajr prayer when the Holy Prophet came and saw that she was sitting on her musla. He said: Do you want to spend time with me from the start of the journey? ([2])

Submitted, yes. He said: After that, recite these four words three times, the reward of your dhikr for the whole day and their reward will be equal: SubhanAllah wa Bhamdah Tjab Khalqa wa Razanafsa Waznat Arsha wa Madad Kalmatah ([3])

Umm al-Mu'minin, Sayyida Juwayriyyah (may Allah be pleased with her) used to frequently engage in prayer, nawafil, fasting and other acts of worship. She could not see anyone in the world of complacency, she herself loved to be free even though she had nothing, yet she said to Hazrat Thabit, "Free me, I will pay the money." Once he asked the Holy Prophet (PBUH) that I want to free the slave. He said, "It is better that you give it as a gift to your brother who lives in the village. There will be a reward. ([4])

Hazrat Juwayriyya (may Allah be pleased with her) says that three days before the battle, I had a dream that the moon came from Yathrib and fell into my lap. I did not like to narrate this dream to anyone until the Messenger of Allah, may God's prayers and peace be upon him, came to Mursi with his army. Then we were imprisoned, so I thought about the dream and even when you freed me and married me, I did not tell anything to my people, but the Muslims themselves made this news known ([5]).

Hazrat Safiyyah also had a dream in the same way. Ibn Qayyim has mentioned in Zad al-Mu'ad that when the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) saw indigo on his face, he inquired what kind of mark this was. Hazrat Safiya said, O Messenger of Allah, before the arrival of your army, I dreamed that a moon came from the direction of Yathrib and fell in my lap, and by Allah, I did not know about your glory until that time. There was no news, so I told this dream to my husband, and he slapped me hard on the face and said: If you want this king, then he has come to Madinah, this is the sign of this slap.([6])

The name of Sayyida Ju Yariya, may God be pleased with her, was Barah. The Messenger of Allah, may God bless him and grant him peace, changed his name to Juwayria after marriage, and she is known in history as Umm al-Mu'minin, Sayyida Juwayria. She died in Medina in 56 AH at the age of sixty-five. Died. ([7])

Marriage with Hazrat Zainab bint Jahsh

In Shawwal 5 Hijri, when the Holy Prophet (PBUH) was 57 years and eight months old, Allah the Almighty married the Prophet (PBUH) to Hazrat Zainab bint Jahsh in order to end an ignorant ritual. Hazrat Zainab used to proudly say that the rest of the married couples were married on earth, while my marriage was performed by the One who is on the throne. ([8]) And the verses of marriage were revealed in Surah Al-Ahzab, which are the slaves of Muhammad until the Day of Resurrection. The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) will continue to read, but on the other hand, the enemies of Islam and the hypocrites used this marriage as a weapon against Islam and the Prophet of Islam, and not only that the infidels of that time continued to tell myths about it, but the infidels and hypocrites of today. The insolent Prophet and Orientalists also insult the Prophet by describing this incident in their own way, and try to make the simple-minded Muslims answer, although the marriage of Hazrat Zayd and Sayyida Zainab was performed by him himself and the purpose of this was The difference between the master and the slave was to be erased, and then after the divorce, Allah made this marriage with the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings be upon him, so that he would get foster children. The status and legal position should be made clear that he cannot be like the original illegitimate child. We explain the interpretation of the relevant verses on the storm that was raised on this occasionSyed Abul-Ali Maududi, while arguing, has dealt with the objections of infidels, hypocrites and orientalists with rational and simulated arguments. See the commentary of the verses:

Propaganda storm on Zainab's marriage:

It is a characteristic of people that when they see their opponent's strengths and their weaknesses clearly, and also know that his strengths are building them up and their own weaknesses are bringing them down, they become anxious. Instead of removing their own weaknesses and imitating his virtues, they become anxious to create in him vices similar to their own, and if that fails, they throw a lot of dirt on him so that the world will be like him. Do not see the merits of It was this mentality that at this stage diverted the activities of the enemies of Islam away from warlike practices and turned them towards vicious attacks and internal seditions. And since this service could be performed better by the hypocrites within the Muslims themselves than by the enemies from outside, therefore, deliberately or unintentionally, it was decided that the hypocrites of Madinah would raise temptations from within and the Jews and polytheists from outside. Try to make the most of it.

Status of adopter

It happened in Dhul-Qa'dah 5 A.H. that the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) asked the Arabs to end the ignorant custom of Tabniyyah (taking another's son as one's own son and giving him the status of a real son in the family). Bin Haritha) married the divorced wife (Zainab bint Hajjash). On this occasion, the hypocrites of Madinah rose up with a great storm of propaganda and the Jews and polytheists from outside joined their voices and started slandering. They made up and spread strange stories about how Muhammad (peace be upon him) fell in love with his son's wife after seeing her, and how the son came to know of their love and divorced him. He gave up his wife, and then how he married his own daughter-in-law. These stories were spread so often that even Muslims could not escape their influence. Therefore, a group of Muhadditheen and commentators have narrated the traditions related to Hazrat Zainab and Zayd. Although Hazrat Zainab was the daughter of the true maternal grandmother of the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) (Umaymah bint Abdul Muttalib), her whole life from childhood to youth passed before the eyes of the Prophet (SAW), by chance he saw her one day and may God bless her. There is no question of falling in love. Then one year before this incident, the Holy Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) himself forced her to marry Hazrat Zayd. His brother Abdullah bin Hajjash was angry with this marriage. Hazrat Zainab herself was not satisfied with this, because the daughter of the highest family of Quraysh could not accept to be the wife of a freed slave. But the Holy Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) had convinced them to do so only because they should begin with their own family to establish social equality among Muslims. It was revealed in the Holy Quran that:

وَ مَا كَانَ لِمُؤْمِنٍ وَّ لَا مُؤْمِنَةٍ اِذَا قَضَى اللّٰهُ وَ رَسُوْلُهٗۤ اَمْرًا اَنْ يَّكُوْنَ لَهُمُ الْخِيَرَةُ مِنْ اَمْرِهِمْ وَ مَنْ يَّعْصِ اللّٰهَ وَ رَسُوْلَهٗ فَقَدْ ضَلَّ ضَلٰلًا مُّبِيْنًا([9])

A believing man or a believing woman does not have the right that when Allah and His Messenger (PBUH) decide on a matter, then they have the right to decide on their own in that matter. And whoever disobeys Allah and His Messenger, he has fallen into clear error.

 Sayyid Maududi writes in his commentary: Ibn Abbas, Mujahid, Qatadah, Ikrima and Muqatil bin Hayyan say that this verse was revealed when the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) sent the message of marriage to Hazrat Zayd (RA) to Zaynab (RA). was given and Hazrat Zainab and her relatives rejected it. It is narrated by Ibn Abbas that when the Holy Prophet gave this message, Hazrat Zainab said, Ana Khair Minh Hasba ([10]) "I am better than him in lineage." He also said, "I do not like him for myself, I am a noble daughter of Quraysh." His brother Abdullah bin Jahsh (RA) expressed similar displeasure. also did Because Hazrat Zayd was a freed slave of the Prophet (peace be upon him) and Hazrat Zainab was the daughter of the Prophet's maternal aunt (Umaymah bint Abdul Muttalib). It was very distasteful to these people that a girl from such a high family, and she is none other than the Prophet's own paternal sister, and that the Prophet (PBUH) is giving her message to his freed slave. This verse was revealed to him, and upon hearing it, Hazrat Zainab and all her family members bowed their heads in obedience without hesitation. After that, the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) performed their marriage, paid a dowry of ten dinars and 60 dirhams on behalf of Hazrat Zayd himself, gave clothes for the offering, and sent some food items for the household. Although this verse was revealed on a special occasion, but the order described in it is the main principle of the Islamic constitution and it is applied to the entire Islamic system of life, from the point of view of a Muslim individual or nation. , or an institution, or a court, or a parliament, or a state does not have the right to exercise its own freedom of opinion in a matter in which an order from Allah and His Messenger is proved. To be a Muslim is to stand before God and the ProphetThey are about to give up their free will. For a person or a nation to be Muslim and to reserve this authority for themselves are mutually exclusive. No sane person can imagine combining these two attitudes. Whoever wants to remain a Muslim must bow down to the commands of God and His Messenger. And whoever does not want to bow, he will have to admit directly that he is not a Muslim. If he does not believe, then no matter how much he beats the drum of being a Muslim, he will be considered a hypocrite in the eyes of both God and mankind.

 All these things were known to friends and enemies alike, and it was not hidden from anyone that Hazrat Zainab's sense of pride was the main reason why she and Zayd bin Haritha could not be killed and finally It was time for divorce. But despite this, the shameless slanderers made the worst moral accusations against the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) and practiced them so often that their propaganda is showing its color till today. This work had to be done that a storm of propaganda against the Holy Prophet was suddenly raised. The polytheists and the hypocrites and the Jews were all burned by your successive successes. After Uhud, until Ahzab and Bani Qurayzah, in a period of two years, their hearts were on fire because of the way they went on collecting zakat upon zakat. They also despaired that they would ever be able to overpower you in an open fight. Therefore, he considered this marriage issue as a God-given opportunity for himself and thought that now we will be able to eliminate the moral superiority of Muhammad (peace be upon him) which is the real secret of his strength and his success. Is.

The divorce of Hazrat Zayd and the subsequent marriage of Hazrat Zainab to Hazrat Zainab are described in the Holy Quran in these verses.

وَإِذْ تَقُولُ لِلَّذِىٓ أَنْعَمَ ٱللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَأَنْعَمْتَ عَلَيْهِ أَمْسِكْ عَلَيْكَ زَوْجَكَ وَٱتَّقِ ٱللَّهَ وَتُخْفِى فِى نَفْسِكَ مَا ٱللَّهُ مُبْدِيهِ وَتَخْشَى ٱلنَّاسَ وَٱللَّهُ أَحَقُّ أَن تَخْشَىٰهُ ۖ فَلَمَّا قَضَىٰ زَيْدٌۭ مِّنْهَا وَطَرًۭا زَوَّجْنَـٰكَهَا لِكَىْ لَا يَكُونَ عَلَى ٱلْمُؤْمِنِينَ حَرَجٌۭ فِىٓ أَزْوَٰجِ أَدْعِيَآئِهِمْ إِذَا قَضَوْا۟ مِنْهُنَّ وَطَرًۭا ۚ وَكَانَ أَمْرُ ٱللَّهِ مَفْعُولًۭا([12])

"O Prophet, remember the occasion when you were saying to the person whom Allah and you had favored, that he should not leave his wife and fear Allah. At that time you were hiding in your hearts that which Allah wanted to reveal, you were afraid of the people, although Allah is more entitled to it than you are afraid of Him. Khatun) was married to you so that there would be no hardship on the believers in the matter of the wives of their sons who have spoken to them while they have fulfilled their needs from them and the order of Allah should have been implemented. There is no obstacle to the Prophet in any work which Allah has ordained for him. This has been the Sunnah of Allah in the case of all the Prophets who have passed before, and the command of Allah is a definitive decision.

After repeated complaints, Hazrat Zayd finally submitted to the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) that he wanted to divorce him. Although Hazrat Zainab had accepted the command of Allah and His Messenger to marry him, she could not erase from her heart the feeling that Zayd was a freed slave, the father of her own family. , and despite being the daughter of the noblest family in Arabia, she is married to this lowly man. Because of this feeling, they never considered Hazrat Zaid as their equal in their married life, and because of this, the bitterness between the two continued to grow. A little more than a year had passed that the situation reached the point of divorce.

In the Holy Quran, there is a comment about this matter as follows:

 And hide in yourself what Allah has taught, and fear the people, and Allah has the right to fear Him, for what is more than that, and his spouse. ([13])

"At that time you were hiding in your hearts what Allah wanted to reveal, you were afraid of the people, although Allah has more right that you should fear Him. Then when Zayd fulfilled his need from him. We married her (divorced woman) to you.

 Some people have taken the reverse meaning of this phrase that the Prophet himself wanted to marry Hazrat Zainab, and he wanted Hazrat Zayd to divorce him, but when he came and He said, "I want to divorce my wife," so the Holy Prophet (SAW) forbade him from the bottom of his heart. On this, Allah is saying that you were hiding what Allah wanted to reveal in your heart. However, the real thing is the opposite of what Allah Ta'ala has explained in these verses

And follow what is revealed to you from your Lord. Indeed, God is expert in what you do.

"Follow that which is indicated to you by your Lord, Allah is Aware of all that you do, put your trust in Allah, Allah is sufficient as a lawyer."

These verses were revealed when Hazrat Zaid (RA) had divorced Hazrat Zainab (RA). At that time, the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) himself also felt this, and Allah Ta'ala also said the same thing. This is the right opportunity to strike at the customs and illusions of, now you yourself should go ahead and marry the divorcee of your son (Zayd) so that this custom is stopped.Be completely broken. But the reason why the Holy Prophet was hesitating to take a step in this matter was the fear that this would give the infidels and hypocrites, who were already burned by the successive successes of the Prophet, a powerful weapon to propagandize against him. will This fear was not due to the fear of his own infamy, but that Islam would be tarnished by it, many people who were inclined towards Islam would become suspicious, influenced by the propaganda of the enemies, many neutral people would be among the enemies. will join, and the weak-minded among the Muslims themselves will fall into doubts and suspicions, therefore the Holy Prophet used to think that taking such a step in order to break a custom of Jahiliyyah is against the interests of the greatness of Islam. The objectives will be damaged.

 At the time when the bitterness between Hazrat Zayd and his wife was increasing, Allah Ta'ala had indicated to the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) that when Zayd divorced his wife, he should divorce her from her divorced wife. Will have to get married. But since the Holy Prophet knew what it meant to marry a promiscuous son with a divorcee in this Arab society, and that too in this situation when the rest of the Arabs, except for a handful of Muslims, were already bitter against him. That is why he was reluctant to undergo this severe trial. Therefore, when Hazrat Zayd expressed his intention to divorce his wife, the Holy Prophet told him to fear Allah and do not divorce his wife. The intention of the Holy Prophet was that if this person does not divorce, then I will be saved from falling into this calamity, and if he divorces, I will have to obey the order and then the mud will be thrown at me that God will seek refuge in me. . But Allah, the Exalted, wanted to see His Prophet in the high position of Ulu al-Azmi and Reza Baqza, and Allah wanted to take that job from him for the sake of a greater expediency. The words "you shall fear him" are clearly referring to the same article.

This is what Imam Zainul Abideen Hazrat Ali bin Hussain (RA) has said in the interpretation of this verse. They say that Allah had informed the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) that Zaynab was going to be one of his wives, but when Zayd came and complained about her to the Prophet, the Prophet told him to fear Allah. And do not leave your wife. On this, Allah Ta'ala said that I had already informed you that I am going to marry you to Zainab, when you said this to Zayd, you were hiding what Allah was about to reveal. Ibn Jarir, Ibn Kathir, with reference to Ibn Abi Hatim, Allama al-Alusi, has also explained the same meaning in Tafsir Ruoh al-Ma'ani. They say that the source of blame is why you told Zayd not to leave your wife, although I had already told you that Zainab would be among your wives.

Hazrat Zayd divorced his wife and her term of marriage was completed. It is said: فلما قضي زيدٌ منها وطارة ([15]) From the words of having fulfilled the need, the meaning automatically comes out that Zayd رضي الله عنه There was no need left. And this situation does not occur simply by giving divorce, because during the period of iddat, if the husband has any interest left, he can turn, and the husband's need also remains with the divorced wife to get her pregnant. Or not to be known. Therefore, the need of a divorced wife with her ex-husband ends only at the time when the iddt has passed. These words are clear in this chapter that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) did this marriage not on the basis of his own desire, but on the basis of the command of Allah Ta'ala.

Her wives, we married her to you - Sayyidah Zainab used to be proud of the fact that the marriages of other wives took place on earth, while my marriage took place on the throne, Allah performed the marriage ([16 ]) - This was a matter of honor and at the same time this ritual was broken which had become so established among the Arabs that it seemed impossible to break it because these words make it clear that Allah Ta'ala has done this. The work was done by the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) for the sake of such a need and expediency that could not be fulfilled by any other means except this plan. There was no way to break the bad customs that had become prevalent in Arabia about oral relationships except that the Messenger of Allah himself went ahead and broke them. Therefore, Allah Ta'ala made this marriage not just for the sake of adding a wife to the Prophet's house, but for an important need.

For other Muslims, this kind of marriage is only permissible, but for the Bani, it was a duty imposed by Allah on them, that is, it has always been prescribed for the Prophets that the order of Allah Even if they follow it, it is very confusing for them, from which there is no escape for them. When Allah Ta'ala assigns a task to His Prophet, he has to do it even if the whole world opposes him. He further explained this in the next verse so that anyone who could raise any kind of objection was over. He said:

Muhammad was not the father of your men, but he was the Messenger of God and the last of the Prophets, and God was All-Knowing ([17])

"(People) Muhammad is not the father of any of your men, but he is the Messenger of Allah and the Seal of the Prophets, and Allah is All-Knowing."

In this one phrase, the root of all the objections raised by the opponents on this marriage of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) has been cut.Were.

Their first objection was that the Holy Prophet had married his daughter-in-law, even though the marriage of a son to a father is forbidden in his own Shari'ah. In response to this, it was said that Muhammad is not the father of any of your men, that is, the person who was married to a divorced woman was a son, when was his marriage to a divorced woman forbidden? You yourselves know that Muhammad (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) does not have any son.

Their second objection was that, even if the fake son is not the real son, then marrying the woman he left behind could only be permissible, after all, what was the need to do. In response to this, it was said, "But he is the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, that is, as a Messenger, it was incumbent upon him to eliminate all prejudices regarding the halal things that your rituals have forbidden, however much you wish." And don't leave any room for doubt about his condition.

Then he said for further emphasis and he is the last of the Prophets, that is, there will be no messenger after him, not even a prophet, that if any reform of the law and society fails to be implemented in his time, then the next prophet will come. To complete this shortcoming, it became even more necessary that they should end this ritual of ignorance by themselves.

After that, it was further emphasized that Allah is All-Knowing, that is, Allah knows why it was necessary to abolish this practice of ignorance at the hands of Muhammad, peace be upon him, and why he did not do it. It was ugly. He knows that no prophet will come from him now, so if he does not end this ritual through his last prophet, then there will be no other person in the world who can break this whole world. be broken forever among Muslims. Even if the later reformers break it, none of their actions will leave behind them such a permanent and universal authority that people in every country and in every age will follow it, and the personality of any of them will also remain within them. It will not have this sanctity that the mere fact of an act being its Sunnah will eradicate every notion of disgust from people's hearts. ([18])

[1] There is a difference of opinion as to which year this raid took place in 5 AH or 6 AH. Also, Ibn Hajar has written that Juwayriyya's father asked the Holy Prophet to take the price and release him, then the Holy Prophet said, Juwayriyya is given authority, he should make whatever decision he wants.

[2] "Since I left, you have been constantly at your place of prayer?" "

[3] Sahih Muslim, Hadith No: 2726.

[4] Al-Nasa'i, Al-Sunan, Hadith No: 4935.

[5] Al-Hakam, al-Mustadrik Ali al-Sahiheen, hadith number: 6781.

[6] Ibn Qayyim, Zad al-Ma'ad to Khair al-Abad, Fasl fi al-Qadoom to Khyber: 3/290.

[7] Al-Dhabi, Shams al-Din, Seer A’lam al-Nabiyyah: 3/232.

[8]           امام ترمذی  نے اپنی سنن میں  حدیث بیان كی ہے كہ: فَكَانَتْ تَفْخَرُ عَلَى أَزْوَاجِ النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ تَقُولُ: زَوَّجَكُنَّ أَهْلُكُنَّ وَزَوَّجَنِي اللَّهُ مِنْ فَوْقِ سَبْعِ سَمَاوَاتٍ : سیدہ زینب دیگر ازواج مطہرات پر فخر كرتی تھیں اور كہتی تھیں : تمہیں تو Your family members have married me, so Allah has arranged my marriage from above the seven heavens. Sunan Tirmidhi, Commentary on Surah Al-Ahzab, Hadith: 3213, Dar al-Bashar, Beirut.

[9] Surah Al-Ahzab: 36.

[10] Al-Zarqani, Abu Abd Allah, Sharh Al-Zarqani on Al-Mawahib al-Diniya in the endowments of Muhammadiyah: 7/167, Dar Al-Kutub Al-Elamiya, Beirut.

[11] Al-Mustadraq Ali al-Sahiheen, chapter on the mention of Zainab bint Jahsh, hadith number: 6775.

[12] Surah Al-Ahzab: 37.

[13] Also.

[14] Surah Al-Ahzab: 2-3

[15] Also.

[16] Sahih Al-Bukhari, Hadith No: 6984.

[17] Surah Al-Ahzab: 40.

[18] Understanding the Qur'an Volume IV, Surah Al-Ahzab Tafsir verses 37-40.

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